Morphological: The fungus may be cultured on V8 juice + pine needle decoction agar, in natural light at 25°C (77°F) (day), 0-10°C (32-50 °F) (night) from symptomatic material (Suto, 1971).
Nambu"s original description was translated by Ito (1972).
Pathogen may be identified morphologically by examination of the ascoma, asci, and ascospores (if sexual stage present) or conidia (if asexual stage present) (Evans, 1984; Ivory, 1987).
May be confused with Dothistroma blight (Mycosphaerella pini), but the pathogen may be distinguished by examination of the conidia.
Symptoms may also be masked by or confused with Sphaeropsis sapinea.