Almond witches' broom - Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium 16SrIX-B

Effective: April 6, 2018
Screening Aids:
Taxonomic Position: Acholeplasmatales : Acholeplasmataceae
Pest Type: Phytoplasma
This pest is a member of the following lists:

Stone Fruit
These Approved Methods are appropriate for: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017
Major Hosts identified in the Host Matrix:
Pest is vectored by:
Approved Method(s):
Survey Instruction Details:
Key Diagnostics
Approved Method(s):

Mistaken Identities:
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
  1. Abou-Jawdah, Y., A. Abdel Sater, M. Jawhari, H. Sobh, H. Abdul-Nour, and P. A. Bianco. 2014. Asymmetrasca decedens (Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae), a natural vector of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Annals of Applied Biology 165(3): 395-403.
  2. Abou-Jawdah, Y., A. Karakashian, H. Sobh, M. Martini, and I.-M. Lee. 2002. An epidemic of almond witches'-broom in Lebanon: Classification and phylogenetic relationships of the associated phytoplasma. Plant Disease 86(5): 477-484.
  3. Abou-Jawdah, Y., E. Abou-Fakhr, H. Sobn, M. Molino Lova, A. Vercesi, and P.A. Bianco. 2010. Almond witches'-broom phytoplasma ('Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'): a real threat to almond, peach and nectarine. 21st International Conference on Virus and other Graft Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops. Julius-Kühn-Archive 427: 418-420.
  4. Davis R., Y. Zhao, E.L. Dally, I.-M. Lee, R. Jomantiene, and S.M. Douglas. 2013. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63:766-776.
  5. Jawhari, M., P. Abrahamian, A. Sater, H. Sobh, P. Tawidian, and Y. Abou-Jawdah. 2015. Specific PCR and real-time PCR assays for detection and quantitation of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Molecular and cellular probes 29(1): 63-70.
  6. Quaglino, F., M. Kube, M. Jawhari, Y. Abou-Jawdah, C. Siewert, E. Choueiri, H. Sobh, P. Casati, R. Tedeschi, M. Lova, and A. Alma A. 2015. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' associated with almond witches’-broom disease: from draft genome to genetic diversity among strain populations. BMC microbiology 15(1):148.
  7. Salehi, M., K. Izadpanah, and J. Heydarnejad. 2006. Characterization of a new almond witches'-broom phytoplasma in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 154(7-8): 386-391.
  8. Seemuller, E., and Schneider, B. 2004. Candidatus Phytoplasma mali, Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri, and Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline, and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 1217-1226.
  9. Tedeschi, R., L. Picciau, F. Quaglino, Y. Abou-Jawdah, M. Molino Lova, M. Jawhari, P. Casati, A. Cominetti, E. Choueiri, H. Abdul-Nour, P.A. Bianco, and A. Alma. 2015. A cixiid survey for natural potential vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' in Lebanon and preliminary transmission trials. Annals of Applied Biology 166(3): 372-388.
  10. UC-IPM. 2015. Bacterial spot (Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni). University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program.
  11. Verdin, E., P. Salar, J.-L. Danet, E. Choueiri, F. Jreijiri, S. El Zammer, B. Gélie, J.M. Bové, and M. Garnier. 2003. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' sp. nov., a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in Lebanon and Iran. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53(3): 833-838.