Palm lethal yellowing - Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae 16SrIV
Effective: April 6, 2018
Taxonomic Position: : Acholeplasmataceae
Pest Type: Phytoplasma
This pest is a member of the following lists:

List 2018 2019 2020
Economic and Environmental reference reference reference
Palm reference reference reference
This datasheet represents an Approved Method for: 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020
Major Hosts identified in the CAPS Host Matrix*:
Pest is vectored by:
Approved Method(s):
Survey Instruction Details:
Key Diagnostics
Approved Method(s):

Mistaken Identities:
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
  1. Andrade, N.M. and Arismendi, N.L. 2013. DAPI staining and fluorescence microscopy techniques for phytoplasma. In: Dickinson, M and Hodgetts, J. (eds). Phytoplasma: Methods and Protocols, Humana Press, Springer NY. Pgs. 115-122.
  2. Cordova, I., Oropeza, C., Almeyda, H., and Harrison, N.A. 2000. First report of a phytoplasma-associated leaf yellowing syndrome of Palma Jipi plants in southern Mexico. Plant Disease 84(7): 807.
  3. Harrison, N., Cordova, I., Richardson, P., and DiBonito, R. 1999. Detection and diagnosis of lethal yellowing. In: C. Oropeza, J. L. Verdeil, G. R. Ashburner, R. Cardeña, and J. M. Santamaría (eds) Current Advances in Coconut Biotechnology 35: 183-196. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
  4. Harrison, N.A., and Oropeza, C. 2008. Coconut lethal yellowing. In: N.A. Harrison, G.P. Rao, and C. Marcone (eds.) Characterization, Diagnosis, and Management of Phytoplasmas. Pgs. 219-248. Studium Press LLC, Houston, USA.
  5. Harrison, N.A., Bourne, C.M., Cox, R.L., Tsai, J.H., and Richardson, P.A. 1992. DNA probes for detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with lethal yellowing disease of palms in Florida. Phytopathology 82: 216-244.
  6. Harrison, N.A., Davis, R.E. and Helmick, E.E. 2013. DNA extraction from arborescent monocots and how to deal with other challenging hosts. In: Dickinson, M and Hodgetts, J. (eds). Phytoplasma: Methods and Protocols, Humana Press, Springer NY. Pgs. 147-158.
  7. Harrison, N.A., Helmick, E.E., and Elliott, M.L. 2008. Lethal yellowing-type diseases of palms associated with phytoplasmas newly identified in Florida, USA. Annals of Applied Biology 153: 85-94.
  8. Harrison, N.A., Myrie, W., Jones, P., Carpio, M.L., Castillo, M., Doyle, M.M., and Oropeza, C. 2002. 16S rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity distinguishes strain populations of palm lethal yellowing phytoplasma in the Caribbean region. Annals of Applied Biology 141: 183-193.
  9. Harrison, N.A., Richardson, P.A., Kramer, J.B. and Tsai, J.H. 1994. Detection of the mycoplasma-like organism associated with lethal yellowing disease of palms in Florida by polymerase chain reaction. Plant Pathology 43: 998-1008.
  10. Hodgetts, J., Boonham, N., Mumford, R., Harrison, N., and Dickinson, M. 2008. Phytoplasma phylogenetics based on analysis of secA and 23S rRNA gene sequences for improved resolution of candidate species of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1826–1837.
  11. Llauger, R., Becker, D., Cueto, J., Peralta, E., Gonzalez, V. Rodriguez, M., and Rohde, W. 2002. Detection and molecular characterization of phytoplasma associated with lethal yellowing disease of coconut palms in Cuba. Journal of Phytopathology 150: 390-395.
  12. Thomas, D.L. and Norris, R.C. 1980. The use of electron microscopy for lethal yellowing diagnosis. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 93: 196-199.
  13. Waters, H. and Hunt, P. 1980. The in vivo three-dimensional form of a plant mycoplasma-like organism revealed by the analysis of serial ultra-thin sections. Journal of General Microbiology 116: 111-131.