Sugar cane cyst nematode - Heterodera sacchari
Effective: August 18, 2010
Tylenchida : Heteroderidae
Pest Code (NAPIS):
This pest is a member of the following lists:
These Approved Methods are appropriate for:
2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015
Pest is vectored by:
This pest is is not known to be a vector and it is not vectored by any organism.
|| NAPIS Survey Method
| Soil Sample
|| Send sample to nematology diagnostic lab where nematodes will be extracted and identified (preferred method).
3012 - General Soil Sample
| Tissue Sample
|| Send sample to nematology diagnostic lab where nematodes will be extracted and identified.
3011 - General Tissue Sample
Survey Instruction Details:
Laboratory methods that are acceptable for cyst extraction include sugar centrifugation, USDA cyst extractor, Fenwick can sieving, wet sieving, and elutriation.
The presence of numerous lemon-shaped, swollen, white females (approximately 0.25 mm in diameter) that are visible along the roots 30-35 days after the initial invasion of second-stage juveniles.
Infected root systems are likely to be stunted and more so if significant invasion occurs early in the growth of the crop. Infected plants will be stunted, and rice plants will produce fewer tillers. In upland conditions, rice plants can exhibit leaf folding typical of drought stress. In severe infections rice plants can be killed.
Morphological: Characteristics of second-stage juveniles, males, females, and cysts. Morphological: Characteristics of second-stage juveniles, males, females, and cysts.
Mulvey (1972) provides a key to 39 species of Heterodera, including H. sacchari, based on characteristics of cysts.
Sharma and Swarup (1983) provide morphological keys, based on cyst, cone top structures, and second-stage larvae, to cyst nematode species occurring in India, including H. sacchari.
Heterodera sacchari is morphological similar to H.elachista, H. oryzae, and H. oryzicola.
The above ground symptoms of root infection by H. sacchari could be confused with nitrogen deficiency or drought stress.
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
Biochemical: Nobbs et al. (1992) use morphology coupled with esterase banding patterns to separate H. sacchari, H. elachista, H. oryzicola, and H. oryzae.
Molecular: ITS-rRNA gene sequences and DNA can be used to distinguish Heterodera sacchari from morphologically similar species.
Tahna Maafi et al. (2003) and Tahna Maafi et al. (2007) use RFLP of ITS-rRNA and/or sequencing of ITS-rDNA to distinguish cyst nematodes from Iran.
This root feeder cyst nematode has been reported from West Africa, Indian, and Pakistan. Rice and sugarcane are the major crops infected by this nematode. This nematode can be introduced with sugarcane and rice plant material and soil debris contaminated with cysts.