Annual ryegrass toxicity - Rathayibacter toxicus

Effective: February 7, 2017
Taxonomic Position: Micrococcales : Microbacteriaceae
Pest Type: Bacteria
No manual – See Host Matrix
These Approved Methods are appropriate for: 2019, 2018, 2017
Pest is vectored by:
Approved Method(s):
Survey Instruction Details:
Key Diagnostics
Approved Method(s):

Mistaken Identities:
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
  1. Allen, J. 2012. Annual ryegrass toxicity - an animal disease caused by toxins produced by a bacterial plant pathogen. Microbiology Australia 33(1): 18-21.
  2. Atha, B. W., Sechler, A., King, J., Blanc, J., and Schneider, W. 2015. Development of a PCR assay for the tunicamycin gene cluster of Rathayibacter toxicus. (Abstr.) Phytopathology 105(Suppl. 3):S3.1.
  3. Clarke, R., and G. Nurse. 1999. Annual Ryegrass Toxicity (Note Number: AG0129). State Government of Victoria, Department of Primary Industries.
  4. Kerr, A., and K. Gibb. 1997. Bacterial and Phytoplasma Diseases and Their Control. In J. F. Brown & H. J. Ogle (Eds.), Plant Pathogens and Plant Diseases, 465-487. NSW Australia: Rockvale Publications.
  5. Kowalski, M.C., D. Cahill, T.J. Doran and S.M. Colegate. 2007. Development and application of polymerase chain reaction-based assays for Rathayibacter toxicus and a bacteriophage associated with annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) toxicity. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 47: 177-183.
  6. Li, W., Z. Yan, M. K. Nakhla, and A. M. Skantar. 2015. Real-Time PCR for Detection and Identification of Anguina funesta, A. agrostis, A. tritici, and A. pacificae. Plant Disease 99(11): 1584-1589.
  7. Masters, A. M., A. R. Gregory, R. J. Evans, J. E. Speijers, and S. S. Sutherland. 2006. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Rathayibacter toxicus, the bacterium involved in annual ryegrass toxicity, in hay. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57: 731-742.
  8. Masters, A. M., B. Samarasinghe, M. J. Kalkhoven, G. L. den Hollander, and D. G. Palmer. 2011. Improvements to the immunoassay for detection of Rathayibacter toxicus in hay. Crop and Pasture Science 62(6): 523-530.
  9. Murray, T. D., I. Agarkova, S. Alderman, J. Allen, R. Bulluck, J. Chitambar, C. Divan, I. Riley, B. Schroeder, A. Sechler, and S. Subbotin. 2014. Recovery Plan for Rathayibacter Poisoning caused by Rathayibacter toxicus (syn. Clavibacter toxicus) National Plant Disease Recovery System, a cooperative project of The American Phytopathological Society and The United States Department of Agriculture.
  10. Powers, T. O., A. L. Szalanski, P. G. Mullin, T. S. Harris, T. Bertozzi, and J. A. Griesbach. 2001. Identification of Seed Gall Nematodes of Agronomic and Regulatory Concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1. Journal of Nematology, 33(4): 191-194.
  11. Putnam, M. 2009. Rathayibacter toxicus, select agent [Poster]. 2nd Annual meeting of the National Plant Diagnostic Network. Miami, FL, (December 6-10, 2009).