Asiatic brown rot - Monilia polystroma

Effective: April 15, 2011
Taxonomic Position: Helotiales : Sclerotiniaceae
Pest Type: Fungi
This pest is a member of the following lists:

List 2017 2018 2019
Stone Fruit reference reference reference
These Approved Methods are appropriate for: 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015
Pest is vectored by:
Approved Method(s):
Key Diagnostics
Approved Method(s):

Mistaken Identities:
In Progress / Literature-based Diagnostics:
  1. Amiri, A., Holb, I.J., and Schnabel, G. 2009. A new selective medium for the recovery and enumeration of Monilinia fructicola, M. fructigena, and M. laxa from stone fruits. Phytopathology 99: 1199-1208.
  2. Boehm, E.W.A., Ma, Z., and Michailides, T.A. 2001. Species-specific detection of Monilinia fructicola from California stone fruits and flowers. Phytopathology 91: 428-439.
  3. De Cal, A., and Melgarejo, P. 1999. Effects of long-wave UV light on Monilinia growth and identification of species. Plant Disease 83: 62-65.
  4. EPPO. 2009. Monilinia fructicola. EPPO Bulletin 39: 337-343.
  5. Fan, J.-Y., Guo, L.-Y., Xu, J.-P., Luo, Y., and Michailides, T. 2010. Genetic diversity of populations of Monilinia fructicola (Fungi, Ascomycota, Helotiales) from China. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 57(2): 206-212.
  6. Fulton, C.E., and Brown, A.E. 1997. Use of SSU rDNA group-I intron to distinguish Monilinia fructicola from M. laxa and M. fructigena. FEMS Microbiology Letters 157: 307-312.
  7. Fulton, C.E., van Leeuwen, G.C.M., and Brown, A.E. 1999. Genetic variation among and within Monilinia species causing brown rot of stone and pome fruits. European Journal of Plant Pathology 105: 495-500.
  8. Förster, H., and Adaskaveg, J.E. 2000. Early brown rot infections in sweet cherry fruit are detected by Monilinia-specific DNA primers. Phytopathology 90: 171-178.
  9. Gell, I., Cubero, J., and Melgarejo, P. 2007. Two different PCR approaches for universal diagnosis of brown rot and identification of Monilinia spp. in stone fruit trees. Journal of Applied Microbiology 103: 2629-2637.
  10. Gril, T., Celar, F., Javornik, B., and Jaksel, J. 2010. Fluorescent AFLP fingerprinting of Monilinia fructicola. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 117(4): 168-172.
  11. Hily, J.-M., Singer, S.D., Villani, S.M., Cox, K.D. 2010. Characterization of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene from Monilinia species causing brown rot of stone and pome fruit and its significance in the development of QoI resistance. Pest Management Science 67: 385–396.
  12. Hu, M.-J., Cox, K.D., Schnabel, G., and Luo, C.-X. 2011. Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach of China. Plos one 6(9): e24990.
  13. Hughes, K.J.D., Fulton, C.E., McReynolds, D., and Lane, C.R. 2000. Development of new PCR primers for identification of Monilinia species. EPPO Bulletin 30: 507-511.
  14. Ioos, R., and Frey, P. 2000. Genomic variation within Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola, and application to species identified by PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology 106: 373-378.
  15. Lane, C.R. 2003. A synoptic key for differentiation of Monilinia fructicola, M. fructigena, and M. laxa, based on examination of cultural characters. EPPO Bulletin 32: 489-493.
  16. Luo, Y., Ma, Z., Reyes, H.C., Morgan, D., and Michailides, T.J. 2007. Quantification of airborne spores of Monilinia fructicola, in stone fruit orchards of California using real-time PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology 118: 145-154.
  17. Ma, Z., Luo, Y., and Michailides, T.J. 2003. Nested PCR assays for detection of Monilinia fructicola in stone fruit orchards and Botryosphaeria dothidea from pistachios in California. J. Phytopathology 151: 312-322.
  18. Ma, Z.H., Yoshimura, M.A., Holtz, B.A., Michailides, T.J. 2005. Characterization and PCR-based detection of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of Monilinia laxa in California. Pest Management Science 61: 449–457.
  19. Malvarez, G., Rodriguez, A., Aguilar, C., Silvera, E., and Mondino, P. 2001. Identificacion de especies de Monilinia spp., en aislamientos obtenidos de Prunus spp. por PCR con primers especificos. Agrociencia V(1): 48-53.
  20. Miessner, S. and Stammler, G. 2010. Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena and M. fructicola: Risk estimation of resistance to QoI fungicides and identification of species with cytochrome b gene sequences. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 117: 162–167.
  21. Petróczy M., Szigethy A. and Palkovics L. 2012. Monilinia species in Hungary: morphology, culture characteristics, and molecular analysis. Trees: Structure and Function 26(1): 153-164.
  22. Phillips, D.J., and Harvey, J.M. 1975. Selective medium for detection of inoculums of Monilinia spp. on stone fruits. Phytopathology 65: 1233-1236.
  23. Snyder, C.L., and Jones, A.L. 1999. Genetic variation between strains of Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa isolated from cherries in Michigan. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 21: 70-77.
  24. van Brouwershaven, I.R., Bruil, M.L., van Leeuwen, G.C.M., and Kox, L.F.F. 2010. A real-time (TaqMan) PCR assay to differentiate Monilinia fructicola from other brown rot fungi and fruit crops. Plant Pathology 59: 548-555.
  25. van Leeuwen, G.C.M., and van Kesteren, H.A. 1998. Delineation of the three brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.) on the basis of quantitative characteristics. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 2042-2050.
  26. van Leeuwen, G.C.M., Baayen, R.P., Holb, I.J., and Jeger, M.J. 2002. Distinction of the Asiatic brown rot fungus Monilia polystroma sp. nov. from M. fructigena. Mycol. Res. 106(4): 444-451.